Monday, December 1, 2008

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa

Family : Rutaceae

Synonym(s) : Belou marmelos (L.) A. Lyons, Crataeva marmelos L., Crateva marmelos L., Cydonia indica Spach., Feronia pellucida Roth

English Name : Bael Tree, Wood apple, Bengal Quince

Origin : India and is grown throughout the sub-continent as well most countries of Southeast Asia.


A deciduous tree that grows from 2.4 to 4.6 meters tall with trifoliate aromatic leaves. The branches sometimes bear long straight spines. The bark is shallowly furrowed and corky. The bisexual flowers are nearly 2 cm wide, borne in clusters, sweet scented and greenish white. The shallow calyx has 5 short sepals and is pubescent on the outside. The 5 petals are oblong ovoid, blunt, thick, pale greenish white and dotted with oil glands. Stamens are numerous, sometimes coherent in bundles. Ovary are oblong ovoid, slightly tapering, axis wide, cells numerous (8–20), small arranged in a circle with numerous ovules in each cell. Fruits are 5–7.5 cm in diameter, globose, oblong pyriform, rind gray or yellow, pulp sweet, thick yellow, orange to brown in color. Seeds are numerous and arranged in the cells surrounded by a slimy transparent mucilage. Seeds have wooly hairs.


Found all over decidious forests in India (including in Garhwal. up to 1800 m). Burma and Java.

Parts Used : Stem, bark, root, leaves,fruit

Herb Effects

Hypoglycemic (root bark); anthelmintic and antifungal (seed); antiviral, astringent, laxative, carminative, hypothermic, hemostatic and arrests secretions, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial (against Salmonella and Vibrio cholera) (fruit); antibiotic activity (fruit, leaves and roots); sweet, aromatic, cooling, alterative and nutritive (ripe fruit); laxative (fresh fruit); astringent, digestive, stomachic, and constipative (unripe fruit); stimulant, antipyretic and antiscorbutic (pulp).

Active Ingredients

Skimmianine, umbelliferone, coumarins, aegelin, lupeol and alkaloids (leaf); gamma and beta-sitosterol (bark and root); psoralin, xanthotoxin, scopoletin and tembamide (root); marmarin (fruit).

Medicinal Use

In ophthalmia,whoophing cough, urinary disorders, peptic ulcers, respiratory disorders and jaundice (leaf); in constipation, cholera, dysentery, diarrhea and intestinal ulcers (fruit); leucoderma, to alleviate asthma (leaf decoction); in diabetes (root bark); in scurvy (fruit pulp); vomiting (unripe bael fruit).


Fluid extract: 1/2 to 2 drachms.
Leaf powder: One or two grams of this powder taken with little honey 3 times a day cures whooping cough.


The leaves are said to cause abortion and sterility in women. The bark is used as a fish poison in the Celebes. Tannin, ingested frequently and in quantity over a long period of time, is antinutrient and carcinogenic.

  1. Chandel et al., Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India.
  2. Jauhari, O.S., R.D. Singh and R.K.Awasthi. 1969. Survey of some important varieties of Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa). Punjab Hort. J. 9:48-53.

  3. Hayes, W.B. 1957. Fruit growing in India. Kitabistan, Allahabad, India.

  4. Singh, R.N. and S.K. Roy. 1984. The Bael cultivation and processing. I.C.A.R., New Delhi.

  5. Teaotia, S.S., V.N. Maurya and B.N. Agnihotri. 1963. Some promising varieties of Bael (Aegle marmelos) of eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Hort. 20:210-214.

  6. Uniyal et al., Medicinal Flora of Garhwal Himalayas.

No comments: