Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Piper nigrum L.

English Name : Black Pepper, Madagascar pepper, Pepper, White pepper

Family : Piperaceae

Origin : Southern India

It is a perennial with a round, smooth, woody stem, with articulations, swelling near the joints and branched; the leaves are entire, broadly ovate, acuminate, coriaceous, smooth, with seven nerves; colour dark green and attached by strong sheath-like foot-stalks to joints of branches. Flowers small, white, sessile, covering a tubular spadix; fruits globular, red berries when ripe, and surface coarsely wrinkled.

Wet and warm parts of India, South Vietnam and the East and West Indies; also it has been introduced into many tropical parts of the world. It prefers shade and fertile soils.

Parts Used : Dried, unripe fruit, leaf and plant

Herb Effects
Diuretic, stimulant, carminative, antifungal, antibacterial, kills certain larvae and tapeworms and stimulates the secretion of gastric juices (fruit); lowers blood pressure (leaf), abortifacient, antiinflammatory and rubefacient.

Active Ingredients
Piperine, hentriacontanol, hentriacontane and beta-sitosterol (stem), sabinene, alpha and beta-pinene, myrcene and limonene (fruit's essential oil), chavicin (a resin); 1,8-cineole, alpha-linolenic acid, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, alpha-terpeniol, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, beta-bisabolene, beta-carotene, beta-pinene, borneol, camphene, camphor, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamic acid, citral, citronellal, d-limonene, delta-3-carene, delta-cadinene, eugenol, gamma-terpinene, lauric acid, linalyl-acetate, linoleic acid, methyl-eugenol, myrcene, myristicin, nerolidol, niacin, oleic acid, oxalic acid, p-cymene, palmitic acid, piperine, safrole, terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, thiamin, ubiquinone (fruit).

Medicinal Use
In malaria, as a diuretic and in various gastrointestinal problems (fruit), cancer (especially that of the nose), corns, gonorrhea, headache, sores, swellings, cholera, craw-craw and dhobey itch, as an aromatic stimulant for disorders such as coma, good for constipation, also on the urinary organs; externally it is a rubefacient, useful in relaxed conditions of the rectum when prolapsed.

5 to 15 grains in powder; B.P. dose of Pepper. 1 to 2 drachms; Oleoresin. U.S.P. dose. 1/2 grain.


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